Challenge Problems

Want to enrich your Precalculus course with difficult problems? Look no further!

Very-Difficult-Mazes-Coloring-Page-1I teach a high-octane version of Precalculus to students in our magnet program. Our course, like most Precalculus courses, covers a very wide variety of topics. As often as possible, I like to give them more difficult problems that enrich the material from the book. These documents are a work in progress, but feel free to steal them (just email me a copy if you improve them!):

If you want solutions for any of these, shoot me an email.

These aren’t 100% polished by any means, but I’m sharing them anyway! Long live the spirit of sharing :-).

By the way, many of these problems are collected from other sources but I’m too far removed from those sources to properly attribute the problem-creator. My sincere apologies!

When will she pass me for the first time?

[Guest post by Dr. Chase]

My wife and I walk on a circular track, starting at the same point.  She does m laps in the time that it takes me to do n laps.  She walks faster than I do, so m > n.  After how many laps will she catch up with me again?

Example:  For m = 4, and n = 3, she will catch up when I have finished 3 laps.  Reason:  When I have finished 1 lap, she finished 1 1/3 laps, so she is 1/3 of the track ahead of me.  (But hasn’t passed me yet.)  When I have finished 2 laps, she has finished 2 2/3 laps around the track, still ahead of me.  When I finish 3 laps, she has finished 3 3/3 laps, which is to say 4 laps.  So we are together for the first time since starting.  If m = 2, n = 1, she will catch up in just 1 lap.  If m = 7, n = 6, she will catch up in 6 laps.  Will she always catch up in n laps?  In how many laps will she catch up for arbitrary m and n?

What does a point on the normal distribution represent?

Here’s another Quora answer I’m reposting here. This is the question, followed by my answer.

What does the value of a point on the normal distribution actually represent, if anything?

 

It’s important to note the difference between discrete and continuous random variables as we answer this question. Though naming conventions vary, I think most mathematicians would agree that a discrete random variable has a Probability Mass Function (PMF) and a continuous random variable has a Probability Density Function (PDF).

The words mass and density go a long way in helping to capture the difference between discrete and continuous random variables. For a discrete random variable, the PMF evaluated at a certain x gives the probability of x. For a continuous random variable, the PDF at a certain x does not give the probability at all, it gives the density. (As advertised!)

So what is the probability that a continuous random variable takes on a certain value? For example, assume a certain type of fish has length X that is normally distributed with mean 22 cm and standard deviation 1.6 cm. What is the probability of selecting a fish exactly 26 cm long? That is, what is P(X=26)?


The answer, for any continuous random variable, is zero. More formally, if X is a continuous random variable with support \mathcal{S}, then P(X=x)=0 for all x\in\mathcal{S}.

For the fish problem, this actually does make sense. Think about it. You pull a fish out of the water which you claim is 26 cm long. But is it really 26 cm long? Exactly 26 cm long? Like 26.00000… cm long? With what precision did you make that measurement? This should explain why the probability is zero.

If instead you want to ask about the probability of getting a fish between 25.995 and 26.005 cm long, that’s perfectly fine, and you’ll get a positive answer for the probability (it’s a small answer :-).

Let’s return to the words mass and density for a second. Think about what those words mean in a physics context. Imagine having a point mass–this is in an ideal case–then the mass of that point is defined by a discrete function. In reality, though, we have density functions that assign a density to each point in an object.

Think about a 1-dimmensional rod with density function \rho(x)=x, x\in (0,10). What is the mass of this rod at x=5? Of course, the answer is zero! This should make intuitive sense. Of course, we can get meaningful answers to questions like: What is the mass of the rod between x=5 and x=6? The answer is \int_5^6 xdx=5.5.

Does the physical understanding of mass vs density clear things up for you?

Guess who!

In an effort to share more of my resources through this blog, here’s another installment.

This time I’m sharing a little worksheet that I created called Guess Who? It’s a short activity–a warm up, or an exit card–and students should be able to do it in 5 minutes or so. I do this in my Precalculus class at the beginning of the year, but depending on the timing and the context, it could be appropriate in an Algebra 2 or Calculus class as well.

The functions and the questions have a one-to-one correspondence and there is a unique solution to the worksheet.

These 12 functions might seem a bit strange, but they are the “12 basic functions” named by our Precalculus textbook authors.

Here are two additional activities that can go with a discussion of functions and their properties:

  1. I have all the functions printed out on 8.5″x11″ paper and backed with colored paper so they look nice. I get twelve volunteers to go up to the front and hold the functions. Then we can play all sorts of games. We can ask all the functions that have an asymptote to step forward. We can ask all the odd functions to step forward. Which functions are bounded? Which functions are always increasing? Which functions have a range of all real numbers? But we can also play a guessing game: A student in the audience picks a function and writes it down without telling everyone. The other students in the audience ask yes-no questions about their function, like “Is your function continuous for all real numbers?” Each time, functions that don’t qualify step back and only a few functions remain. This is repeated until the chosen function is the only one that remains.
  2. Another fun game idea comes from one of my colleagues. I love this: Have a bunch of “name tags” made up for all your students. The name tags will be one of the 12 basic functions and students will wear these on their backs, without knowing what their function is. They then have to walk around the room and ask other students yes-no questions about the features of their function until they can identify which function they are. I think I’ve played a version of this with celebrities or something. But it’s perfect for the math classroom, too!

Okay, that’s my contribution to the MTBoS for the day :-).

Haloween worksheet for Calculus

Anyone who has been in math classes knows those corny worksheets with a joke on them. When you answer the questions, the solution to the (hilarious) joke is revealed. Did I mention these worksheets are corny? But when you get to Calculus or higher math classes, you get nostalgic for those old pre-algebra worksheets your middle school teacher gave you. I think I speak for all of us when I say this.

Not to fear, here’s a very corny joke worksheet I made just for your Calculus students. Print this on orange paper and hand it out on Halloween. When kids successfully solve the problems and discover the solution, give them candy.

Here is the solution:

Happy Halloween. Enjoy!

 

PS: I normally use my blog to share deep insights about math education or to discuss interesting higher level mathematics. But I was inspired to share more of my day-to-day activities and worksheets because of Rebecka Peterson at Epsilon-Delta. She has shared some great resources, which I’ve stolen in used in my classroom. Thanks, Rebecka!

 

How do you expand √(a+b)?

This is a question that was recently asked on Quora:

it’s easy to expand
(a+b)^2 = a^2+2ab+b^2 or
(a+b)^3=a^3+3ab^2+3a^2b+b^3
or some other (a+b)^n but what about (a+b)^{1/2} aka. \sqrt{a+b}

Here’s my answer:

Just have Wolfram|Alpha do it for you :-).

But if you were on a desert island without access to Wolfram Alpha, here’s how you might think it through:

Are you already comfortable with the Binomial Theorem? Here it is again, but stated in a particular way that I think we’ll like.

\left(x+1\right)^r=1+rx+\frac{r(r-1)}{2!}x^2+\frac{r(r-1)(r-2)}{3!}x^3+\cdots

Look at it and make sure you understand it, and verify that it really is equivalent to the formulation of the Binomial Theorem you know.

Now, for the big trick. It turns out the above statement holds true not for just r=1,2,3,\ldots but for all real r. The only catch is that this often results in an infinite series. (These series results can also be obtained by Taylor expansion.)

In particular, it works for r=1/2:

\left(x+1\right)^{1/2}=1+\frac{1}{2}x+\frac{1/2(1/2-1)}{2!}x^2+\cdots

\left(x+1\right)^{1/2}=1+\frac{1}{2}x-\frac{1}{8}x^2+\frac{1}{16}x^3+\cdots

Now, rewriting your original expression (a + b)^{\frac{1}{2}} as \sqrt{b}\left(a/b+1\right)^{1/2} gives

\sqrt{b}\left(1+\frac{1}{2}\left(\frac{a}{b}\right)-\frac{1}{8}\left(\frac{a}{b}\right)^2+\frac{1}{16}\left(\frac{a}{b}\right)^3+\cdots\right)

=\sqrt{b}+\frac{a}{2\sqrt{b}}-\frac{a^2}{8b^{3/2}}+\frac{a^3}{16b^{5/2}}+\cdots

which is the same result Wolfram Alpha will spit back.

Hope that helps!

In Defense of Calculus

In the following article, I expand and clarify my arguments that first appeared in this post.

A colleague recently sent me another article (thanks Doug) claiming that Statistics should replace Calculus as the most important math class for high school students.

Which peak to climb? (CCL, click on image for source)

The argument usually goes: Most kids won’t use Calculus. Statistics is more useful.

As you might know already, I disagree that the most important reason for teaching math is because it is useful. I don’t disagree that math is useful. Math is not just useful, but essential for STEM careers. So “usefulness” is certainly one reason for teaching math. But I don’t think it’s the most important reason for teaching math.

The most important reason for teaching math is because it is beautiful and eternal. Math is the single place in school where students can find deductive certainty and eternal truth. Even when human activity ceases, math will persist. When we study math, we tap into something bigger than ourselves. We taste the divine!

We are teaching students to think deductively—like a mathematician would. This is such an important area of knowledge for students to explore. They need to know what it means to prove something. A proof provides a kind of truth that is unattainable in other subjects, even the hard sciences. At best, the scientific method is still just guesses compared to math.

This is the most important thing we pass on to our students. Though some will, most of our students will not directly use the math we teach. This is actually true about every subject in high school. Most students will not remember the details of The Great Gatsby or remember the chemical formula for Ammonium Nitrate. But we do hope they learn the bigger skills: analyzing text and thinking scientifically. In math, the “bigger skills” are the ones I outlined above—proof, logic, reasoning, argumentation, problem solving. They can always look up the formulas.

Math is a subject that stands on its own and it is not the servant of other subjects. If we treat math as simply a subject that serves other subjects by providing useful formulas, we turn math into magic. We don’t need to defend math in this way. It stands on its own!

Calculus = The Mona Lisa

If students can take both Statistics and Calculus, that is ideal. But if I had to choose one, I would pick Calculus. The development of “the Calculus” is one of the great achievements of mankind and it’s a real crime to go through life never having been exposed to it. Can you imagine never having seen The Mona Lisa? Calculus is like the Mona Lisa of mathematics :-).